ecdsa - Bitcoin Stack Exchange

New to Bitcoin? Confused? Need help? You've come to the right place.

Bitcoin is an internet based decentralised currency. Similarly to Bittorrent, but Bitcoin uses a public ledger called the blockchain to record who has sent and received money. It's very new, and for many very confusing. BitcoinHelp aims to rectify this. Whether it be explaining how it works, how to use it, how to buy Bitcoins, how to integrate Bitcoins into your business. Sharing your successes as well as failures in order to help others is also gladly received. Ask away!

Ceterum censeo: In some yet undefined future - the halving must be removed. The question is not: if, but when (and how)

Bitcoin's mining ecosystem is saturated. Period.
The ASIC race has weakened as it has moved closer to the technological limits - achieving some kind of fragile balance. The best proof of this is Bitmain's search for new areas (vide: AI research)
After more than a decade, we are smarter than Satoshi at least in one area - we have the knowledge acquired over these more than ten years ...
"Bitcoin should have had a 0.1% or 1% monetary inflation tax to pay for security." (Peter Todd):
If someone cannot accept the inevitability of this right now - let him think if he would change his mind while he sees the consecutive halvings - after which the network hashrate drops half by half - and does not return to the previous level, ever... (I suppose we can see that process in 4 years already...)
And the trigger could be like this (of course after general consensus):
That would be an "organoleptic" determination of the optimal inflation rate for the Bitcoin network - and there is simply no better way to determine it. Just don't belive such simplification, when is hard to find an optimum for something - the ultimate solution is zero. It's not.
Remember, that Bitcoin is not an entity detached from the reality. There are various limitations, e.g. nanometer-based technological processes limitations, there is a finite amount of cheap energy that can be obtained on a global scale, etc.) Bitcoin functions in certain realities - whether we like it or not.
Sooner or later the situation described above will get us. It is worth to be prepared mentally for it - and not to start another war, but rather discuss it calmly. If, for example, 90% of the community considers that something is necessary for the development of bitcoin - such a change will take place.
For example, the theoretical exchange of ECDSA due to the threat of quantum computers - acceptance would take place at an express rate. It will be similar in this matter. Just it shouldn't be too late for corrective action.
The small inflation rate, decreasing continuosly and slowly but never to zero, and last but not least: determined by reality - seems to be the most proper measure in this case.
Ceterum censeo...
a) tx fees are able to keep miners mining - perfect
b) miners are pushed out by consecutive halvings - not perfect
What I proposed is unbiased way for checking that (bitcoin ecosystem overall health):
if(current_network_hashrate < network_hashrate_4_years_ago) {
else do_nothing();
submitted by jk_14r to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ABCMint is a quantum resistant cryptocurrency with the Rainbow Multivariable Polynomial Signature Scheme.

Good day, the price is going up to 0.3USDT.

ABCMint Second Foundation

ABCMint has been a first third-party organization that focuses on post-quantum cryptography research and technology and aims to help improve the ecology of ABCMint technology since 2018.

What is ABCMint?

ABCMint is a quantum resistant cryptocurrency with the Rainbow Multivariable Polynomial Signature Scheme.

Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology have attracted a significant amount of attention since 2009. While some cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, are used extensively in the world, these cryptocurrencies will eventually become obsolete and be replaced when the quantum computers avail. For instance, Bitcoin uses the elliptic curved signature (ECDSA). If a bitcoin user?s public key is exposed to the public chain, the quantum computers will be able to quickly reverse-engineer the private key in a short period of time. It means that should an attacker decide to use a quantum computer to decrypt ECDSA, he/she will be able to use the bitcoin in the wallet.

The ABCMint Foundation has improved the structure of the special coin core to resist quantum computers, using the Rainbow Multivariable Polynomial Signature Scheme, which is quantum resisitant, as the core. This is a fundamental solution to the major threat to digital money posed by future quantum computers. In addition, the ABCMint Foundation has implemented a new form of proof of arithmetic (mining) "ABCardO" which is different from Bitcoin?s arbitrary mining. This algorithm is believed to be beneficial to the development of the mathematical field of multivariate.

Rainbow Signature - the quantum resistant signature based on Multivariable Polynomial Signature Scheme

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (UOV) is a multi-disciplinary team of experts in the field of oil and vinegar. One of the oldest and most well researched signature schemes in the field of variable cryptography. It was designed by J. Patarin in 1997 and has withstood more than two decades of cryptanalysis. The UOV scheme is a very simple, smalls and fast signature. However, the main drawback of UOV is the large public key, which will not be conducive to the development of block practice technology.

The rainbow signature is an improvement on the oil and vinegar signature which increased the efficiency of unbalanced oil and vinegar. The basic concept is a multi-layered structure and generalization of oil and vinegar.

PQC - Post Quantum Cryptography

The public key cryptosystem was a breakthrough in modern cryptography in the late 1970s. It has become an increasingly important part of our cryptography communications network over The Internet and other communication systems rely heavily on the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, RSA encryption, and the use of the DSA, ECDSA or related algorithms for numerical signatures. The security of these cryptosystems depends on the difficulty level of number theory problems such as integer decomposition and discrete logarithm problems. In 1994, Peter Shor demonstrated that quantum computers can solve all these problems in polynomial time, which made this security issue related to the cryptosystems theory irrelevant. This development is known as the "post-quantum cryptography" (PQC)

In August 2015, the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) released an announcement regarding its plans to transition to quantum-resistant algorithms. In December 2016, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announced a call for proposals for quantum-resistant algorithms. The deadline was November 30, 2017, which also included the rainbow signatures used for ABCMint.
submitted by WrapBeautiful to ABCMint [link] [comments]

08-13 21:45 - 'Building the Infrastructure for the Future Decentralized Financial Market, Coinbase Included HBTC.Com Debut DeFi Project - Nest Protocol' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/Nest_Fan removed from /r/Bitcoin within 24-34min

As the world’s leading regulatory compliant digital asset exchange, Coinbase sets one of the most stringent requirements for digital asset listing which includes technical evaluation of projects, legal and risk analysis, market supply and demand analysis, and crypto-economics. Coinbase holds a strong reputation in the digital asset industry, and thus the “Coinbase Standard” is considered as the industry benchmark for other digital asset projects, and the market has even seen the “Coinbase effect”.
On July 25 2020, Coinbase quietly launched the pricing chart of a decentralized oracle project, NEST Protocol (NEST), into its portal. Although Coinbase has yet to announce the inclusion of the project in its evaluation list, it represents a keen interest in the DeFi sector, and particularly in the DeFi price oracle projects.
NEST Protocol is the rising star in the decentralized price oracle sector
Decentralized financial services offered by the current mainstream DeFi platforms such as MakerDAO, Compound, dYdX, etc. rely heavily on the market data provided by the oracle projects. Oracle projects act as reliable information sources to feed these price data to other DeFi Projects, connecting the price data from the centralized world to the DeFi space. As such, the price oracle is an integral part of the decentralized financial services infrastructure.
Traditionally, the price oracle collects data from different platforms and feeds these data points to the DeFi space to create data reference points to enable them to function properly. However, many problems currently exist in the DeFi space, for example, blockchain network congestion, malicious attacks, wild market fluctuations, and other factors that may cause the data given by the price oracle to deviate from the true market data. These ultimately cause users to trade on wrong information in the DeFi space and increases such transaction costs.
Decentralized finance requires a fast, secure, and reliable price oracle. The birth of the decentralized price oracle is the embodiment of the blockchain industry’s thinking, and the current market projects offering decentralized price oracle services which includes NEST Protocol, Chainlink, Band Protocol, Tellor, Witness, Oraclize, and many others.
The innovation of NEST-Price is that every data point has been agreed upon by market validators, in line with the blockchain consensus mechanism. NEST-Price synchronizes the off-chain price in a highly decentralized manner, creating real and valid price data on-chain. This is the unique differentiator between NEST-Price and other price oracles.
Compared with other price oracle projects, NEST also has other features and advantages, such as the proposed peer-to-peer quotation matching as well as its unique verifier verification structure, making NEST more resilient to malicious attacks, resulting in a more decentralized network, and it’s on-chain prices closer to the fair market price. All of this has resulted in the NEST Protocol becoming a rising star in the DeFi price oracle sector. selects high-quality projects to list and partnering with NEST to promote the development of DeFi ecosystem
During the selection of quality assets, exchanges like []1 and Coinbase adhere to the principle of a rigorous selection of assets from different projects to enable a proper range of digital assets. At the same time, in order to solve existing pain points in the digital asset industry, which currently lacks a market-making management solution, also has launched its own “coin listing crowdsourcing [liquidity initiative]2 “, redefining the exchange market making model., through its coin listing strategy, effectively reduces the problem of low liquidity in the early stages of high-quality projects, ensuring the smoothness of the user experience, and achieves a win-win situation for traders, the community, and the respective trading platform. These initiatives, coupled with reliable user protection and a responsible attitude, have earned a positive reputation among users.
Since its inception, the exchange has been committed to the discovery of both quality and promising digital asset projects. At a time when DeFi is growing rapidly, has a unique perspective for the decentralized price oracle sector and has prioritized NEST as a premium partner to debut the project alongside with its global branding upgrade. In addition, has [100% proof of reserves]3 for traders to validate the existence of assets via the Merkle tree, which brings transparency to the extreme.
In May 2020, NEST token delivered a 883.29% of return, at its peak, after its global debut on At present, HBTC Exchange addresses holding NEST token accounts in a total of 141 million, ranked first in the overall network. At the same time, the HBTC Exchange network exclusively releases NEST staking mining and data show that NEST 24-hour turnover has reached $20.4 million.
Post-listing of the NEST token, has also listed DeFi projects such as DF, OKS, NEST, SWTH, JST, NVT, and other DeFi projects with market potential; some projects have achieved astonishing performance in the secondary market.’s path to DeFi: developing public chains to prepare for the future ecosystem breakout.
In terms of the DeFi product and ecosystem infrastructure, HBTC has deployed HBTC Chain since launched in 2018, an infrastructure designed for decentralized finance and DeFi business with patented Bluehelix decentralized cross-chain clearing and custody technology.
The HBTC Chain is the DeFi ecosystem infrastructure that the team has spent a significant amount of effort to build. It is based on decentralization and community consensus and integrates cryptography and blockchain technologies to support decentralized association-based governance capabilities at the technical level. Based on decentralized key management, combining various cryptography tools including ECDSA, commitment, zero-knowledge proof, and multi-party computation, It implements the distributed private key generation and signature for cross-chain assets among all validators. On top of that, this technology can realize light-weight and non-intrusive cross-chain asset custody. On the clearing layer, HBTC Chain employs BHPOS consensus and horizontal sharding mechanisms to achieve high-performing transaction clearing, and implementation of OpenDex protocol to help the development of the DeFi ecosystem.
In addition, with the success experience of Bluehelix Cloud SaaS and white label solutions and the HBTC Brokerage system, HBTC’s public chain also innovatively supports CEX+DEX mixed matchmaking model and OpenDex protocol and proposes the three-tier node system which consists of standard node + consensus node + core node. This structure provides HBTC public chain certain advantages in terms of performance and cross-chain transactions. Users can easily establish a DEX with OpenDex protocol at nearly zero cost, and all DEX will share the liquidity and support customized user interface and trading parameters. The trading experience can be completely comparable to centralized spot exchanges.
With the launch of its test network, it is now possible to develop various DeFi applications on the HBTC public chain, such as decentralized swap, so that private keys are not controlled by any party; no KYC, which can prevent personal information leakage; and asset security through the setting of invalidation, cancellation of transactions and other functions, cross-chain asset mappings, such as the ability to issue cross-chain cBTC or other chain tokens, fully decentralized asset mapping contracts, and 100% reserves.
In the past few months, the DeFi market has been extremely active, the price of DeFi tokens has been rising, and a new round of competition with the centralized exchanges has started. HBTC Chain relies on the powerful technology of Bluehelix and []1 , giving all public chains the ability to interconnect, and put into both DeFi and SaaS levels. Undoubtedly, as one of the first exchanges to build the DeFi ecosystem, HBTC is leading the breakout in the current DeFi craze and has now become the first choice of users to engage with quality DeFi projects.

From BITCOIN news([[link]6 )
Building the Infrastructure for the Future Decentralized Financial Market, Coinbase Included HBTC.Com Debut DeFi Project - Nest Protocol
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: Nest_Fan
1: *btc*com/ 2: m*diu**com/hbt***ficia*/hbt*-launches-ba**liquidi*y***owd*unding-li*ti*g-plan-redefine-t*e*exch*nge-*i*tin**m*d*l***6*58f*f1d* 3: hbtc.ze**e*k*co*/hc/*n-us/a**icles/3***46287754-HBT*-10*-*ro***of*Reserve 4: hb**/ 5: n*ws.bitcoin.c*m*bu*ld*ng-t**-infr***ructur*-f*r-the*fut*re*decen**ali**d-*inanc*a*-market-coi**as*-*ncluded-h*t*-*o*-*ebut-de**-p*oject-n*st-**otocol* 6: n**s.bit*oin*com/building-th*-infrast*u*ture*for-t*e-fut****decen**a**zed**inancia*-m*rket-coinbase-**c*uded-*b*c-c***deb***defi-**oject-*est**r**ocol/]^^5
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

What happens to all the lost bitcoin?

So, I'm going through the intellectual exercise of resuscitating my old 2011 wallet.dat to see what's there (.001 LOL). While I'm researching the process of collecting this massive sum I'm coming across many, many posts regarding the same thing: I've just found an old wallet etc. So the question occurs to me, what happens to all the lost bitcoin? Over time it's inevitable that wallet owners die or go senile or simply suffer a catastrophic hardware failure that takes all their bitcoin with them. With fiat currency new money is always being minted, but the world supply of bitcoin is capped. Doesn't this mean that eventually and inevitably there will be no more bitcoin at all?
edit: Genuine question: Downvotes? Is this a contentious issue?
submitted by d8sconz to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Use a bookmark, or copy-paste, don't type

My cable went out so I tried to go to my cable provider,, but I typed "optinum" instead and got redirected to a page on "" saying my browser was insecure, and I should go to the chrome web store and download a particular extension in order to browse securely. There was a tiny "Why am I seeing this" at the bottom, clicking it said "You are seeing this ad because you went to our website or we were placing ads for people interested in safe." I declined to click on anything, and after a minute it redirected (through a Google link to disguise things) to, an actual company. I tried going back to the safely-browse page to take a screenshot, but they apparently banned my IP as I the page now shows 404.
submitted by DrAtkins to Scams [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

A brief of QRL

Quantum Resistant Ledger(QRL)is a blockchain network which is designed to resist quantum attacks. The founder of QRL, Peter Waterland is one of the earliest group of people who have worryies about the safty of Bitcoin, Etherreum and other blockchain network which use ECDSA or similar algorithums.
With the developement of the quantum computing technologies, the encryption algorithums of these cryptocurrencies will have no effect someday in the future for sure.
QRL figured out a way to slove this problem, it uses a hash-based eXtended Merkle Tree Signature Scheme (XMSS) to encrypt the message. To make a long story short, QRL utilitize the cryptographic method with minimum security requreiment that rely only upon on the collision resistance of cryptographic hash function. the hash-based digital signature scheme is generated from such function. Such signartue is called one time signatures(OTS), which could only be safely used for one time in encrypt the message, so for each address QRL use many OTS which is generated by a binary hash tree, also know as Merkle Tree.
QRL is programmed with python and The total amount of QRL token is 105,000,000. Now the QRL ranked No. 62 in It also allows developers to easily build applications on its platform.
Official Website:
Block Browser:
Mining software: Xmirg
Operating system: Windows, Linux
Mining equipment: CPU
Mining tutorial:
submitted by DxPool-official to QRL [link] [comments]

Can a quantum computer be used for bitcoin mining?

This has been bothering me for a while.
I'm a newbie in computer science, and I just found out about Grover’s algorithm, which can only be implemented on a quantum computer. Supposedly it can achieve a quadratic speedup over a classical computer, brute-forcing a solution to a n-bit symmetric encryption key in 2^n/2 iterations.
This led me to think that, by utilizing a quantum computer or quantum simulator of about 40-qubits that runs Grover's algorithm, is it possible to mine bitcoins this way? The current difficulty of bitcoin mining is about 15,466,098,935,554 (approximately 2^44), which means that it would take about 2^44*2^32=2^76 SHA256 hashes before a valid block header hash is found.
However, by implementing Grover's algorithm, we would only need to sort through 2^76/2=2^38 hashes to discover a valid block header hash. A 38-qubit quantum computer should be sufficient in this case - which means the 40-qubit quantum computer should be more than enough to handle bitcoin mining.
Therefore - is it possible to use quantum computers to mine bitcoins this way? I'm not too familiar with quantum computers, so please correct me if I missed something.......
NOTE: I am NOT asking whether it is possible to use quantum computers to break the ECDSA secp256k1 algorithm, which would effectively allow anyone to steal bitcoins from wallets. I know that this would require much more than 40 qubits, and is definitely not happening in the near-future.
Rather, I'm asking about bitcoin mining, which is a much easier problem than trying to break ECDSA secp256k1.
submitted by Palpatine88888 to QuantumComputing [link] [comments]

I have 3,000 solar powered Artik 710’s (Mali GPU), can I cloud mine

Title says it all. I have 3,000 Samsung Artik 700’s that are solar powered (large panel grids) that I pay zero to power all day.
Can I set these up as miners with slushpool and mine some bitcoin over the next 3 years?
I was thinking cgminer for my mining application.
8x ARM® Cortex®[email protected]
3D graphics accelerator
1GB DDR3 @ 800MHz 4GB eMMC
Edit: I said cloud mine. Someone already made fun of me. It’s Pool mining.
Cryptographic Hardware Acceleration: Dedicated cryptographic acceleration hardware which provides support for random number generation, block cipher (AES/DES), Hash functions (SHA[1/2/3] with HMAC), and public key cryptosystem (RSA, ECDSA, DH, ECDH)
submitted by SlevinsBrother77 to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

[ShowerThoughts] There will come a day when computing is cheap enough that all the lost bitcoin will be found.

Just like most brainwallets have already been brute forced, I could foresee the day when ECDSA could be brute-forced at some marginal profitability. May be decades away. By then most of the UTXOs will be moved to a new signature algorithm, and the only ones left will be all the "lost coins" of people who forgot their seed or lost their harddrive. In this imaginary future, bitcoin mining will be brute-forcing old / legacy ECDSA UTXOs.
Take a look at the RSA Challenge, they have been ticking away at that over the last few decades quite nicely.
Bits Month-Year Cracked
300 4-1991
364 4-1992
397 7-1993
426 4-1994
430 4-1996
463 2-1999
512 8-1999
576 12-2003
663 5-2005
768 12-2009
And that is just for fame and $50k or so of prizes. The cash "prize" for ECSDA is much higher. I'd be amazed if ECDSA is still unfactorable in 80 years. Especially using made-to-order hardware.
Before the maximalists bury me, I'm anticipating innovation in methodologies, not Moore's Law.
Though there may be raw tech in the next century as well. Here's a proof-of-concept at defeating RSA 2048 in trivial time
Remember... the three bodies problem was considered unsolvable... till it wasn't.
submitted by brianddk to btc [link] [comments]

[Tenant - NY] Qualifying for rent based on Bitcoin assets

I was an early adopter of Bitcoin and my small initial investment has luckily appreciated to the point where I no longer need to work. I'm trying to move to a high-end rental property owned by a mom & pop landlord with a few properties around town.
Of course because of the price tag, especially during the current environment, they're very strict about making sure potential tenants are able to afford the rent. No problem there. My crypto holdings could easily cover the lease for several decades. Normally I suppose it's quite rare for rental tenants to have large asset holdings. So, already this is kind of an unusual situation, as they're more geared for verifying income.
But the good news is they do have a procedure for qualifying tenants based on assets. I'm not sure if they've used it before... But anyway it requires that tenants have 40 times the monthly rent in liquid assets. No problem, I've got *way* more than that. They say all they require is seeing three months of financial statements.
Uhh... The whole point of Bitcoin is that it isn't centralized inside a financial institution. I tried to explain, over the phone to the nice older lady landlord, how the blockchain works, and the basics of public-private encryption. I explained how it's actually very easy to prove ownership of my Bitcoin holdings. All I have to do is give her the address of my holdings, and prove ownership by signing a message with the corresponding ECDSA private keys. At that point all she has to do is check the latest mined block to verify that it contains enough BTC to satisfy her requirements.
I don't see what the problem is here. Unlike sending copies of bank statements, which could easily be forged, this method is *far* more reliable and is literally cryptographically secure. She's acting like I'm some sort of lunatic, when she implicitly trusts the same crypto algorithms 100 times a day in her online banking, shopping and messages.
Anyway, has anyone else been in this position? Either from the tenant or landlord side? I understand cryptocurrency is new technology, but by now surely people must realize Bitcoin isn't some made up fairy dust. I could just move on to a different property, but feel like I'd end up hitting the same wall. Any suggestions for proving to landlords that I'm quite far from a financial risk?
submitted by throwawayTenant2021 to Landlord [link] [comments]

You can call you a Bitcoiner if you know/can explain these terms...

10 Minutes
10,000 BTC Pizza
2016 Blocks
21 Million
210,000 Blocks
51% Attack
Asic Boost
Bitcoin Cash
Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)
Bitcoin SV
Block height
Block reward
Bloom Filter
Brain Wallet
Change Address
Child pays for parent (CPFP)
Coinbase (not the exchange)
Coinmarketcap (CMC)
Colored Coin
Custodial Wallet
Craig Wright
David Kleinman
Difficulty adjustment
Difficulty Target
Dorian Nakamoto
Double spend
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
Full Node
Gavin Andresen
Genesis Block
Getting goxed
Hard Fork
Hardware Wallet
Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) Wallet
Hot Wallet
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)
Light Node
Master Private Key
Master Public Key
Master Seed
Merkle Tree
Mining Farm
Mining Pool
Not your keys,...
Orphan block
Paper Wallet
Pieter Wuille
Private key
Proof of Stake (PoS)
Proof of Work (PoW)
Public key
Replace by Fee (RBF)
Roger Ver
Satoshi Nakamoto
Schnorr Signatures
Segregated Witness (Segwit)
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)
Smart Contract
Soft Fork
Transaction Fees
TransactionId (Txid)
User Activated Soft Fork (UASF)
Wallet Import Format (WIF)
Watch-Only Address
List obviously not complete. Suggestions appreciated.
submitted by PolaT1x to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained
As the Bitcoin hash rate reaches new all-time highs, there’s never been a better time to discuss blockchain security and its relation to the hashing power and the Proof of Work (PoW) that feed the network. The Bitcoin system is based on a form of decentralized trust, heavily relying on cryptography. This makes its blockchain highly secure and able to be used for financial transactions and other operations requiring a trustless ledger.
Far from popular belief, cryptography dates back to thousands of years ago. The same root of the word encryption — crypt — comes from the Greek word ‘kryptos’, meaning hidden or secret. Indeed, humans have always wanted to keep some information private. The Assyrians, the Chinese, the Romans, and the Greeks, they all tried over the centuries to conceal some information like trade deals or manufacturing secrets by using symbols or ciphers carved in stone or leather. In 1900 BC, Egyptians used hieroglyphics and experts often refer to them as the first example of cryptography.
Back to our days, Bitcoin uses cryptographic technologies such as:
  1. Cryptographic hash functions (i.e. SHA-256 and RIPEMD-160)
  2. Public Key Cryptography (i.e. ECDSA — the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm)
While Public Key Cryptography, bitcoin addresses, and digital signatures are used to provide ownership of bitcoins, the SHA-256 hash function is used to verify data and block integrity and to establish the chronological order of the blockchain. A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical function that verifies the integrity of data by transforming it into a unique unidentifiable code.
Here is a graphic example to make things more clear:

– Extract from the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) in Digital Currencies at the University of Nicosia.
Furthermore, hash functions are used as part of the PoW algorithm, which is a prominent part of the Bitcoin mining algorithm and this is what is of more interest to understand the security of the network. Mining creates new bitcoins in each block, almost like a central bank printing new money and creates trust by ensuring that transactions are confirmed only when enough computational power is devoted to the block that contains them. More blocks mean more computation, which means more trust.
With PoW, miners compete against each other to complete transactions on the network and get rewarded. Basically they need to solve a complicated mathematical puzzle and a possibility to easily prove the solution. The more hashing power, the higher the chance to resolve the puzzle and therefore perform the proof of work. In more simple words, bitcoins exist thanks to a peer to peer network that helps validate transactions in the ledger and provides enough trust to avoid that a third party is involved in the process. It also exists because miners give it life by resolving that computational puzzle, through the mining reward incentive they are receiving.
For more info, contact directly or email at [email protected].
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from, like and follow us on social media:
submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

William Shatner's new enterprise: A solar-powered bitcoin mining farm in southern Illinois

William Shatner's new enterprise: A solar-powered bitcoin mining farm in southern Illinois submitted by Jumpingcords to Futurology [link] [comments]

NSA wants encryption that fends off quantum computing hacks - implies elliptic curve could eventually be broken

NSA wants encryption that fends off quantum computing hacks - implies elliptic curve could eventually be broken submitted by OzzyBitcions to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ShowerThoughts] There will come a day when computing is cheap enough that all the lost bitcoin will be found.

Just like most brainwallets have already been brute forced, I could foresee the day when ECDSA could be brute-forced at some marginal profitability. May be decades away. By then most of the UTXOs will be moved to a new signature algorithm, and the only ones left will be all the "lost coins" of people who forgot their seed or lost their harddrive. In this imaginary future, bitcoin mining will be brute-forcing old / legacy ECDSA UTXOs.
submitted by brianddk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Every computer is the Bitcoin computer

Bitcoin doesn't require any special hardware, as it can be used on any device which can do computations. To make a Bitcoin transaction you need to create a ECDSA signature, which is just math, something which all computers do well. You can do it both on resource-constrained like smart cards (think SIM cards) and on large servers alike.
The idea that you need a special Bitcoin computer to use Bitcoin is outright harmful, as it limits your choices and dupes you into buying overpriced proprietary hardware which gives the vendor more control of what you can and cannot do. This is very much against the spirit of Bitcoin which can thrive only as an open system.
So yeah, that thing 21 inc is trying to sell makes no sense, whatsoever.
But a lot of people think that "there might be something in it", let me go through the theories of why this device makes sense:
  1. "It is a dev kit!". Let me guess, you aren't a programmer. Or if you're a programmer, you're a shitty programmer and should be ashamed of yourself. You do not need any dev kit for Bitcoin, all you need is open source software (and, maybe, some internet services, optionally). When I wanted to try to do something Bitcoin related back in 2011, all I needed was to download bitcoind and install it on my $10/month VPS. Then I looked through RPC API call list and made a Bitcoin-settled futures exchange. The whole thing took me only a week. I didn't need to pay $400 for a devkit. Learning how to work with bitcoind took less than a day. There are hundreds of Bitcoin companies and thousands of hobbyist working on Bitcoin projects, none of them needed any sort of a dev kit.
  2. "It is useful because it has APIs and pre-installed software!" No, see above. If needed, pre-installed software can be delivered in a form of a virtual machine (e.g. VirtualBox, VMware, etc), no need for a physical device.
  3. "It is useful because it comes with a micropayment service/API". Nope. These things can be done in software, no need for custom hardware. Obviously, a micropayment system can be more widely adopted when it is open. If it is tied to custom hardware (which I doubt) then you have a vendor lock-in which is exactly the thing we're trying to avoid with Bitcoin.
  4. "it comes with pre-installed marketplace". So what, we have marketplaces such as OpenBazaar. If there are useful features in the 21 inc's marketplace we can replicated them in open source software.
  5. "It's convenient for users!" Are you saying that a $400 device which you need to be connected to a laptop is more convenient than a service which can run in a browser?
  6. "It might offer better security". We already have devices such as Trezor which can protect bitcoins from unsecure operating system. Trezor costs much less than $400 and is actually useful. Even though it was done by a small company without much capital.
  7. "It can be used for applications like a reputation system, etc." When telecom companies wanted an ability to differentiate between users, they created smartcard-based SIM cards. This technology is many decades old. Using Bitcoin for a reputation system is a bad idea, as it is not designed for that. If device holds 1000 satoshi to give it an identity weight, a guy who has 1 bitcoin can impersonate 10000 such devices. It just not going to work.
  8. "A constant stream of bitcoins it mines is convenient for users." User has to pay for this device, he might as well just buy bitcoins. If it is necessary for bitcoins to be attached to hardware, this can be done using a tiny dongle which costs less than $1 to manufacture, or a smart card.
  9. "But this device got backed by VCs and large companies, there must be something to it, we are just too stupid to comprehend its greatness". Well...
There is, indeed, a very simple explanation of this device's existnce: Balaji's reality distortion field. He is a prominent VC, so it was relatively easy to convince others that it's a worthy idea. The big vision behind it -- the financial network of devices -- is actually great. And then there is a question of execution. A guy like Balaji is supposed to be an expert in assessing feasibility of execution. So, as we can guess, investors trusted him. As many VCs tell, they invest in people. They cannot examine nitty-gritty technical details, but just look at skills, track record, etc.
So the fact that it got large investments and generates a lot of hype doesn't mean much, there was a plenty of such companies during dotcom boom.
It's quite like :CueCat. As we now know, an ability to scan a printed code and open a web page which it points to is very useful, a lot of people use QR codes, they are ubiquitous. This was exactly the vision behind CueCat. But it was implemented as a dedicated hardware device, not as a smartphone app, as there were no smartphones at that time. So after a lot of hype and aggressive marketing the company failed, but just few years later their vision became realized in QR reader apps.
Hardware becomes increasingly irrelevant. As Mark Andreessen, Balaji's partner, [once said], software is eating the world. Solving problems which can be solved software using custom hardware is just silly.
Balaji talks about internet-of-things applications where devices mine bitcoins and use them to buy services they need to function. Well, in the end, user pays for that, as he pays for physical chips and electricity. It would be more efficient for him to pay directly than to use this mining-based scheme. And it's possible to do so using software. E.g. imagine you have a lot of smart devices which use external services in your home. It would be nice if you can just aggregate the bill and pay it off automatically, say $2/month. Why only $2? Well, if there is a device consuming $20/month, it needs some serious mining abilities, so it will cost much more than $20 in electricity bills...
Maybe 21 inc will eventually pivot into purely software solutions, they have a lot of money to play with. But the current generation of devices they make just makes no sense, whatsoever, and people who try to find something useful in them just waste their time.
EDIT: One plausible case for using custom hardware is a possibility of off-chain microtransactions using trusted hardware. Not unlike MintChip conceptually. But size of the device as well as its price is puzzling in this case, as this can be implemented (and was already implemented) in smart card form factor.
submitted by killerstorm to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ren | All-In-One


What is Ren?
Ren is an open protocol that enables the permissionless and private transfer of value between any blockchain. Ren's core product, RenVM, brings interoperability to decentralized finance (DeFi).
What makes RenVM unique is that it does everything in secret using zero-knowledge proofs over an sMPC based protocol that the team has pioneered. The state, inputs, and outputs of all programs that RenVM runs are kept hidden from everyone, including the Darknodes that power it.
This allows RenVM to securely manage (ECDSA) private keys on different blockchains, making it possible to shift tokens between these blockchains in a fully trustless, permissionless, and decentralized way (i.e interoperability).
Technically speaking RenVM is a byzantine fault-tolerant protocol (with 1/3 malicious nodes) that does ECDSA threshold key generation and signing via sMPC. RenVM is not a product or an application in and of itself but is a network (and an accompanying SDK) that allows developers to bring interoperability to their DeFi applications.
Ren was founded in 2017 and is headquartered in Singapore.

RenVM Mainnet Is Live! 🎉

RenBridge (dapp)| Mint BTC, BCH, and ZEC on Ethereum

Official Resources
Darknodes are the physical machines that power RenVM, where every machine contributes CPU time for compute power and its disk space for storage. These are that machines that form the P2P decentralized network (not a blockchain) that cooperate to run secret multiparty computations. It is important to note that programs executing on RenVM are hidden from the Darknodes that run the virtual machine.
This guide will walk you through the installation of your Darknode. Before you begin, make sure that you have a MacOS, Windows, or Ubuntu machine available (i.e. home computer) and 100,000 REN.
Guides: How to set up a Darknode
The Team
Ren Linkedin Page
General Updates | Blog
2020 Development & Ecosystem Updates
Podcasts & Youtube videos
REN Token Details
What happened to the Republic Protocol?
Republic Protocol was rebranded to Ren to reflect the project’s evolution towards interoperability (i.e. RenVM). Old posts and discussions can be found on the Republic Protocol Reddit

Closing Thoughts

We truly appreciate our community, and this cannot be said enough. The level of technical understanding and subsequent assistance provided to our newcomers, speaks to the expertise and positivity in the community, and we couldn’t be more thankful.
We look forward to collaborating with everyone as we make our next steps forward towards building a cross-chain DeFi ecosystem. If you are interested in working directly with the Ren Team we are always looking for developers so please do reach out via the below email.
Need help or want to partner? [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by RENProtocol to RenProject [link] [comments]

Is bitcoin Quantum Safe?

I have been investigating how Bitcoin works and I noticed the way transactions are verified and signed is based on a RSA system. Since I took a great interest in Quantum Computing recently as well, I reckon that in the hypothetical case that a QC pops out of a lab somewhere, besides the internet as a whole, wouldn't Bitcoin be at risk as well? And if so, why not move it to a more Quantum Safe system just in case? Not that I know of any such system, I'm just curious as to why such precautions where not taken if they and the problem exist.
submitted by bernardoslr to btc [link] [comments]

Transcript of the community Q&A with Steve Shadders and Daniel Connolly of the Bitcoin SV development team. We talk about the path to big blocks, new opcodes, selfish mining, malleability, and why November will lead to a divergence in consensus rules. (Cont in comments)

We've gone through the painstaking process of transcribing the linked interview with Steve Shadders and Daniell Connolly of the Bitcoin SV team. There is an amazing amount of information in this interview that we feel is important for businesses and miners to hear, so we believe it was important to get this is a written form. To avoid any bias, the transcript is taken almost word for word from the video, with just a few changes made for easier reading. If you see any corrections that need to be made, please let us know.
Each question is in bold, and each question and response is timestamped accordingly. You can follow along with the video here:


Connor: 02:19.68,0:02:45.10
Alright so thank You Daniel and Steve for joining us. We're joined by Steve Shadders and Daniel Connolly from nChain and also the lead developers of the Satoshi’s Vision client. So Daniel and Steve do you guys just want to introduce yourselves before we kind of get started here - who are you guys and how did you get started?
Steve: 0,0:02:38.83,0:03:30.61
So I'm Steve Shadders and at nChain I am the director of solutions in engineering and specifically for Bitcoin SV I am the technical director of the project which means that I'm a bit less hands-on than Daniel but I handle a lot of the liaison with the miners - that's the conditional project.
Hi I’m Daniel I’m the lead developer for Bitcoin SV. As the team's grown that means that I do less actual coding myself but more organizing the team and organizing what we’re working on.
Connor 03:23.07,0:04:15.98
Great so we took some questions - we asked on Reddit to have people come and post their questions. We tried to take as many of those as we could and eliminate some of the duplicates, so we're gonna kind of go through each question one by one. We added some questions of our own in and we'll try and get through most of these if we can. So I think we just wanted to start out and ask, you know, Bitcoin Cash is a little bit over a year old now. Bitcoin itself is ten years old but in the past a little over a year now what has the process been like for you guys working with the multiple development teams and, you know, why is it important that the Satoshi’s vision client exists today?
Steve: 0:04:17.66,0:06:03.46
I mean yes well we’ve been in touch with the developer teams for quite some time - I think a bi-weekly meeting of Bitcoin Cash developers across all implementations started around November last year. I myself joined those in January or February of this year and Daniel a few months later. So we communicate with all of those teams and I think, you know, it's not been without its challenges. It's well known that there's a lot of disagreements around it, but some what I do look forward to in the near future is a day when the consensus issues themselves are all rather settled, and if we get to that point then there's not going to be much reason for the different developer teams to disagree on stuff. They might disagree on non-consensus related stuff but that's not the end of the world because, you know, Bitcoin Unlimited is free to go and implement whatever they want in the back end of a Bitcoin Unlimited and Bitcoin SV is free to do whatever they want in the backend, and if they interoperate on a non-consensus level great. If they don't not such a big problem there will obviously be bridges between the two, so, yeah I think going forward the complications of having so many personalities with wildly different ideas are going to get less and less.
Cory: 0:06:00.59,0:06:19.59
I guess moving forward now another question about the testnet - a lot of people on Reddit have been asking what the testing process for Bitcoin SV has been like, and if you guys plan on releasing any of those results from the testing?
Daniel: 0:06:19.59,0:07:55.55
Sure yeah so our release will be concentrated on the stability, right, with the first release of Bitcoin SV and that involved doing a large amount of additional testing particularly not so much at the unit test level but at the more system test so setting up test networks, performing tests, and making sure that the software behaved as we expected, right. Confirming the changes we made, making sure that there aren’t any other side effects. Because of, you know, it was quite a rush to release the first version so we've got our test results documented, but not in a way that we can really release them. We're thinking about doing that but we’re not there yet.
Steve: 0:07:50.25,0:09:50.87
Just to tidy that up - we've spent a lot of our time developing really robust test processes and the reporting is something that we can read on our internal systems easily, but we need to tidy that up to give it out for public release. The priority for us was making sure that the software was safe to use. We've established a test framework that involves a progression of code changes through multiple test environments - I think it's five different test environments before it gets the QA stamp of approval - and as for the question about the testnet, yeah, we've got four of them. We've got Testnet One and Testnet Two. A slightly different numbering scheme to the testnet three that everyone's probably used to – that’s just how we reference them internally. They're [1 and 2] both forks of Testnet Three. [Testnet] One we used for activation testing, so we would test things before and after activation - that one’s set to reset every couple of days. The other one [Testnet Two] was set to post activation so that we can test all of the consensus changes. The third one was a performance test network which I think most people have probably have heard us refer to before as Gigablock Testnet. I get my tongue tied every time I try to say that word so I've started calling it the Performance test network and I think we're planning on having two of those: one that we can just do our own stuff with and experiment without having to worry about external unknown factors going on and having other people joining it and doing stuff that we don't know about that affects our ability to baseline performance tests, but the other one (which I think might still be a work in progress so Daniel might be able to answer that one) is one of them where basically everyone will be able to join and they can try and mess stuff up as bad as they want.
Daniel: 0:09:45.02,0:10:20.93
Yeah, so we so we recently shared the details of Testnet One and Two with the with the other BCH developer groups. The Gigablock test network we've shared up with one group so far but yeah we're building it as Steve pointed out to be publicly accessible.
Connor: 0:10:18.88,0:10:44.00
I think that was my next question I saw that you posted on Twitter about the revived Gigablock testnet initiative and so it looked like blocks bigger than 32 megabytes were being mined and propagated there, but maybe the block explorers themselves were coming down - what does that revived Gigablock test initiative look like?
Daniel: 0:10:41.62,0:11:58.34
That's what did the Gigablock test network is. So the Gigablock test network was first set up by Bitcoin Unlimited with nChain’s help and they did some great work on that, and we wanted to revive it. So we wanted to bring it back and do some large-scale testing on it. It's a flexible network - at one point we had we had eight different large nodes spread across the globe, sort of mirroring the old one. Right now we scaled back because we're not using it at the moment so they'll notice I think three. We have produced some large blocks there and it's helped us a lot in our research and into the scaling capabilities of Bitcoin SV, so it's guided the work that the team’s been doing for the last month or two on the improvements that we need for scalability.
Steve: 0:11:56.48,0:13:34.25
I think that's actually a good point to kind of frame where our priorities have been in kind of two separate stages. I think, as Daniel mentioned before, because of the time constraints we kept the change set for the October 15 release as minimal as possible - it was just the consensus changes. We didn't do any work on performance at all and we put all our focus and energy into establishing the QA process and making sure that that change was safe and that was a good process for us to go through. It highlighted what we were missing in our team – we got our recruiters very busy recruiting of a Test Manager and more QA people. The second stage after that is performance related work which, as Daniel mentioned, the results of our performance testing fed into what tasks we were gonna start working on for the performance related stuff. Now that work is still in progress - some of the items that we identified the code is done and that's going through the QA process but it’s not quite there yet. That's basically the two-stage process that we've been through so far. We have a roadmap that goes further into the future that outlines more stuff, but primarily it’s been QA first, performance second. The performance enhancements are close and on the horizon but some of that work should be ongoing for quite some time.
Daniel: 0:13:37.49,0:14:35.14
Some of the changes we need for the performance are really quite large and really get down into the base level view of the software. There's kind of two groups of them mainly. One that are internal to the software – to Bitcoin SV itself - improving the way it works inside. And then there's other ones that interface it with the outside world. One of those in particular we're working closely with another group to make a compatible change - it's not consensus changing or anything like that - but having the same interface on multiple different implementations will be very helpful right, so we're working closely with them to make improvements for scalability.
Connor: 0:14:32.60,0:15:26.45
Obviously for Bitcoin SV one of the main things that you guys wanted to do that that some of the other developer groups weren't willing to do right now is to increase the maximum default block size to 128 megabytes. I kind of wanted to pick your brains a little bit about - a lot of the objection to either removing the box size entirely or increasing it on a larger scale is this idea of like the infinite block attack right and that kind of came through in a lot of the questions. What are your thoughts on the “infinite block attack” and is it is it something that that really exists, is it something that miners themselves should be more proactive on preventing, or I guess what are your thoughts on that attack that everyone says will happen if you uncap the block size?
Steve: 0:15:23.45,0:18:28.56
I'm often quoted on Twitter and Reddit - I've said before the infinite block attack is bullshit. Now, that's a statement that I suppose is easy to take out of context, but I think the 128 MB limit is something where there’s probably two schools of thought about. There are some people who think that you shouldn't increase the limit to 128 MB until the software can handle it, and there are others who think that it's fine to do it now so that the limit is increased when the software can handle it and you don’t run into the limit when this when the software improves and can handle it. Obviously we’re from the latter school of thought. As I said before we've got a bunch of performance increases, performance enhancements, in the pipeline. If we wait till May to increase the block size limit to 128 MB then those performance enhancements will go in, but we won't be able to actually demonstrate it on mainnet. As for the infinitive block attack itself, I mean there are a number of mitigations that you can put in place. I mean firstly, you know, going down to a bit of the tech detail - when you send a block message or send any peer to peer message there's a header which has the size of the message. If someone says they're sending you a 30MB message and you're receiving it and it gets to 33MB then obviously you know something's wrong so you can drop the connection. If someone sends you a message that's 129 MB and you know the block size limit is 128 you know it’s kind of pointless to download that message. So I mean these are just some of the mitigations that you can put in place. When I say the attack is bullshit, I mean I mean it is bullshit from the sense that it's really quite trivial to prevent it from happening. I think there is a bit of a school of thought in the Bitcoin world that if it's not in the software right now then it kind of doesn't exist. I disagree with that, because there are small changes that can be made to work around problems like this. One other aspect of the infinite block attack, and let’s not call it the infinite block attack, let's just call it the large block attack - it takes a lot of time to validate that we gotten around by having parallel pipelines for blocks to come in, so you've got a block that's coming in it's got a unknown stuck on it for two hours or whatever downloading and validating it. At some point another block is going to get mined b someone else and as long as those two blocks aren't stuck in a serial pipeline then you know the problem kind of goes away.
Cory: 0:18:26.55,0:18:48.27
Are there any concerns with the propagation of those larger blocks? Because there's a lot of questions around you know what the practical size of scaling right now Bitcoin SV could do and the concerns around propagating those blocks across the whole network.
Steve 0:18:45.84,0:21:37.73
Yes, there have been concerns raised about it. I think what people forget is that compact blocks and xThin exist, so if a 32MB block is not send 32MB of data in most cases, almost all cases. The concern here that I think I do find legitimate is the Great Firewall of China. Very early on in Bitcoin SV we started talking with miners on the other side of the firewall and that was one of their primary concerns. We had anecdotal reports of people who were having trouble getting a stable connection any faster than 200 kilobits per second and even with compact blocks you still need to get the transactions across the firewall. So we've done a lot of research into that - we tested our own links across the firewall, rather CoinGeeks links across the firewall as they’ve given us access to some of their servers so that we can play around, and we were able to get sustained rates of 50 to 90 megabits per second which pushes that problem quite a long way down the road into the future. I don't know the maths off the top of my head, but the size of the blocks that can sustain is pretty large. So we're looking at a couple of options - it may well be the chattiness of the peer-to-peer protocol causes some of these issues with the Great Firewall, so we have someone building a bridge concept/tool where you basically just have one kind of TX vacuum on either side of the firewall that collects them all up and sends them off every one or two seconds as a single big chunk to eliminate some of that chattiness. The other is we're looking at building a multiplexer that will sit and send stuff up to the peer-to-peer network on one side and send it over splitters, to send it over multiple links, reassemble it on the other side so we can sort of transition the great Firewall without too much trouble, but I mean getting back to the core of your question - yes there is a theoretical limit to block size propagation time and that's kind of where Moore's Law comes in. Putting faster links and you kick that can further down the road and you just keep on putting in faster links. I don't think 128 main blocks are going to be an issue though with the speed of the internet that we have nowadays.
Connor: 0:21:34.99,0:22:17.84
One of the other changes that you guys are introducing is increasing the max script size so I think right now it’s going from 201 to 500 [opcodes]. So I guess a few of the questions we got was I guess #1 like why not uncap it entirely - I think you guys said you ran into some concerns while testing that - and then #2 also specifically we had a question about how certain are you that there are no remaining n squared bugs or vulnerabilities left in script execution?
Steve: 0:22:15.50,0:25:36.79
It's interesting the decision - we were initially planning on removing that cap altogether and the next cap that comes into play after that (next effective cap is a 10,000 byte limit on the size of the script). We took a more conservative route and decided to wind that back to 500 - it's interesting that we got some criticism for that when the primary criticism I think that was leveled against us was it’s dangerous to increase that limit to unlimited. We did that because we’re being conservative. We did some research into these log n squared bugs, sorry – attacks, that people have referred to. We identified a few of them and we had a hard think about it and thought - look if we can find this many in a short time we can fix them all (the whack-a-mole approach) but it does suggest that there may well be more unknown ones. So we thought about putting, you know, taking the whack-a-mole approach, but that doesn't really give us any certainty. We will fix all of those individually but a more global approach is to make sure that if anyone does discover one of these scripts it doesn't bring the node to a screaming halt, so the problem here is because the Bitcoin node is essentially single-threaded, if you get one of these scripts that locks up the script engine for a long time everything that's behind it in the queue has to stop and wait. So what we wanted to do, and this is something we've got an engineer actively working on right now, is once that script validation goad path is properly paralyzed (parts of it already are), then we’ll basically assign a few threads for well-known transaction templates, and a few threads for any any type of script. So if you get a few scripts that are nasty and lock up a thread for a while that's not going to stop the node from working because you've got these other kind of lanes of the highway that are exclusively reserved for well-known script templates and they'll just keep on passing through. Once you've got that in place, and I think we're in a much better position to get rid of that limit entirely because the worst that's going to happen is your non-standard script pipelines get clogged up but everything else will keep keep ticking along - there are other mitigations for this as well I mean I know you could always put a time limit on script execution if they wanted to, and that would be something that would be up to individual miners. Bitcoin SV's job I think is to provide the tools for the miners and the miners can then choose, you know, how to make use of them - if they want to set time limits on script execution then that's a choice for them.
Daniel: 0:25:34.82,0:26:15.85
Yeah, I'd like to point out that a node here, when it receives a transaction through the peer to peer network, it doesn't have to accept that transaction, you can reject it. If it looks suspicious to the node it can just say you know we're not going to deal with that, or if it takes more than five minutes to execute, or more than a minute even, it can just abort and discard that transaction, right. The only time we can’t do that is when it's in a block already, but then it could decide to reject the block as well. It's all possibilities there could be in the software.
Steve: 0:26:13.08,0:26:20.64
Yeah, and if it's in a block already it means someone else was able to validate it so…
Cory: 0,0:26:21.21,0:26:43.60
There’s a lot of discussions about the re-enabled opcodes coming – OP_MUL, OP_INVERT, OP_LSHIFT, and OP_RSHIFT up invert op l shift and op r shift you maybe explain the significance of those op codes being re-enabled?
Steve: 0:26:42.01,0:28:17.01
Well I mean one of one of the most significant things is other than two, which are minor variants of DUP and MUL, they represent almost the complete set of original op codes. I think that's not necessarily a technical issue, but it's an important milestone. MUL is one that's that I've heard some interesting comments about. People ask me why are you putting OP_MUL back in if you're planning on changing them to big number operations instead of the 32-bit limit that they're currently imposed upon. The simple answer to that question is that we currently have all of the other arithmetic operations except for OP_MUL. We’ve got add divide, subtract, modulo – it’s odd to have a script system that's got all the mathematical primitives except for multiplication. The other answer to that question is that they're useful - we've talked about a Rabin signature solution that basically replicates the function of DATASIGVERIFY. That's just one example of a use case for this - most cryptographic primitive operations require mathematical operations and bit shifts are useful for a whole ton of things. So it's really just about completing that work and completing the script engine, or rather not completing it, but putting it back the way that it was it was meant to be.
Connor 0:28:20.42,0:29:22.62
Big Num vs 32 Bit. I've seen Daniel - I think I saw you answer this on Reddit a little while ago, but the new op codes using logical shifts and Satoshi’s version use arithmetic shifts - the general question that I think a lot of people keep bringing up is, maybe in a rhetorical way but they say why not restore it back to the way Satoshi had it exactly - what are the benefits of changing it now to operate a little bit differently?
Daniel: 0:29:18.75,0:31:12.15
Yeah there's two parts there - the big number one and the L shift being a logical shift instead of arithmetic. so when we re-enabled these opcodes we've looked at them carefully and have adjusted them slightly as we did in the past with OP_SPLIT. So the new LSHIFT and RSHIFT are bitwise operators. They can be used to implement arithmetic based shifts - I think I've posted a short script that did that, but we can't do it the other way around, right. You couldn't use an arithmetic shift operator to implement a bitwise one. It's because of the ordering of the bytes in the arithmetic values, so the values that represent numbers. The little endian which means they're swapped around to what many other systems - what I've considered normal - or big-endian. And if you start shifting that properly as a number then then shifting sequence in the bytes is a bit strange, so it couldn't go the other way around - you couldn't implement bitwise shift with arithmetic, so we chose to make them bitwise operators - that's what we proposed.
Steve: 0:31:10.57,0:31:51.51
That was essentially a decision that was actually made in May, or rather a consequence of decisions that were made in May. So in May we reintroduced OP_AND, OP_OR, and OP_XOR, and that was also another decision to replace three different string operators with OP_SPLIT was also made. So that was not a decision that we've made unilaterally, it was a decision that was made collectively with all of the BCH developers - well not all of them were actually in all of the meetings, but they were all invited.
Daniel: 0:31:48.24,0:32:23.13
Another example of that is that we originally proposed OP_2DIV and OP_2MUL was it, I think, and this is a single operator that multiplies the value by two, right, but it was pointed out that that can very easily be achieved by just doing multiply by two instead of having a separate operator for it, so we scrapped those, we took them back out, because we wanted to keep the number of operators minimum yeah.
Steve: 0:32:17.59,0:33:47.20
There was an appetite around for keeping the operators minimal. I mean the decision about the idea to replace OP_SUBSTR, OP_LEFT, OP_RIGHT with OP_SPLIT operator actually came from Gavin Andresen. He made a brief appearance in the Telegram workgroups while we were working out what to do with May opcodes and obviously Gavin's word kind of carries a lot of weight and we listen to him. But because we had chosen to implement the May opcodes (the bitwise opcodes) and treat the data as big-endian data streams (well, sorry big-endian not really applicable just plain data strings) it would have been completely inconsistent to implement LSHIFT and RSHIFT as integer operators because then you would have had a set of bitwise operators that operated on two different kinds of data, which would have just been nonsensical and very difficult for anyone to work with, so yeah. I mean it's a bit like P2SH - it wasn't a part of the original Satoshi protocol that once some things are done they're done and you know if you want to want to make forward progress you've got to work within that that framework that exists.
Daniel: 0:33:45.85,0:34:48.97
When we get to the big number ones then it gets really complicated, you know, number implementations because then you can't change the behavior of the existing opcodes, and I don't mean OP_MUL, I mean the other ones that have been there for a while. You can't suddenly make them big number ones without seriously looking at what scripts there might be out there and the impact of that change on those existing scripts, right. The other the other point is you don't know what scripts are out there because of P2SH - there could be scripts that you don't know the content of and you don't know what effect changing the behavior of these operators would mean. The big number thing is tricky, so another option might be, yeah, I don't know what the options for though it needs some serious thought.
Steve: 0:34:43.27,0:35:24.23
That’s something we've reached out to the other implementation teams about - actually really would like their input on the best ways to go about restoring big number operations. It has to be done extremely carefully and I don't know if we'll get there by May next year, or when, but we’re certainly willing to put a lot of resources into it and we're more than happy to work with BU or XT or whoever wants to work with us on getting that done and getting it done safely.
Connor: 0:35:19.30,0:35:57.49
Kind of along this similar vein, you know, Bitcoin Core introduced this concept of standard scripts, right - standard and non-standard scripts. I had pretty interesting conversation with Clemens Ley about use cases for “non-standard scripts” as they're called. I know at least one developer on Bitcoin ABC is very hesitant, or kind of pushed back on him about doing that and so what are your thoughts about non-standard scripts and the entirety of like an IsStandard check?
Steve: 0:35:58.31,0:37:35.73
I’d actually like to repurpose the concept. I think I mentioned before multi-threaded script validation and having some dedicated well-known script templates - when you say the word well-known script template there’s already a check in Bitcoin that kind of tells you if it's well-known or not and that's IsStandard. I'm generally in favor of getting rid of the notion of standard transactions, but it's actually a decision for miners, and it's really more of a behavioral change than it is a technical change. There's a whole bunch of configuration options that miners can set that affect what they do what they consider to be standard and not standard, but the reality is not too many miners are using those configuration options. So I mean standard transactions as a concept is meaningful to an arbitrary degree I suppose, but yeah I would like to make it easier for people to get non-standard scripts into Bitcoin so that they can experiment, and from discussions of I’ve had with CoinGeek they’re quite keen on making their miners accept, you know, at least initially a wider variety of transactions eventually.
Daniel: 0:37:32.85,0:38:07.95
So I think IsStandard will remain important within the implementation itself for efficiency purposes, right - you want to streamline base use case of cash payments through them and prioritizing. That's where it will remain important but on the interfaces from the node to the rest of the network, yeah I could easily see it being removed.
Cory: 0,0:38:06.24,0:38:35.46
*Connor mentioned that there's some people that disagree with Bitcoin SV and what they're doing - a lot of questions around, you know, why November? Why implement these changes in November - they think that maybe the six-month delay might not cause a split. Well, first off what do you think about the ideas of a potential split and I guess what is the urgency for November?
Steve: 0:38:33.30,0:40:42.42
Well in November there's going to be a divergence of consensus rules regardless of whether we implement these new op codes or not. Bitcoin ABC released their spec for the November Hard fork change I think on August 16th or 17th something like that and their client as well and it included CTOR and it included DSV. Now for the miners that commissioned the SV project, CTOR and DSV are controversial changes and once they're in they're in. They can't be reversed - I mean CTOR maybe you could reverse it at a later date, but DSV once someone's put a P2SH transaction into the project or even a non P2SH transaction in the blockchain using that opcode it's irreversible. So it's interesting that some people refer to the Bitcoin SV project as causing a split - we're not proposing to do anything that anyone disagrees with - there might be some contention about changing the opcode limit but what we're doing, I mean Bitcoin ABC already published their spec for May and it is our spec for the new opcodes, so in terms of urgency - should we wait? Well the fact is that we can't - come November you know it's bit like Segwit - once Segwit was in, yes you arguably could get it out by spending everyone's anyone can spend transactions but in reality it's never going to be that easy and it's going to cause a lot of economic disruption, so yeah that's it. We're putting out changes in because it's not gonna make a difference either way in terms of whether there's going to be a divergence of consensus rules - there's going to be a divergence whether whatever our changes are. Our changes are not controversial at all.
Daniel: 0:40:39.79,0:41:03.08
If we didn't include these changes in the November upgrade we'd be pushing ahead with a no-change, right, but the November upgrade is there so we should use it while we can. Adding these non-controversial changes to it.
Connor: 0:41:01.55,0:41:35.61
Can you talk about DATASIGVERIFY? What are your concerns with it? The general concept that's been kind of floated around because of Ryan Charles is the idea that it's a subsidy, right - that it takes a whole megabyte and kind of crunches that down and the computation time stays the same but maybe the cost is lesser - do you kind of share his view on that or what are your concerns with it?
Daniel: 0:41:34.01,0:43:38.41
Can I say one or two things about this – there’s different ways to look at that, right. I'm an engineer - my specialization is software, so the economics of it I hear different opinions. I trust some more than others but I am NOT an economist. I kind of agree with the ones with my limited expertise on that it's a subsidy it looks very much like it to me, but yeah that's not my area. What I can talk about is the software - so adding DSV adds really quite a lot of complexity to the code right, and it's a big change to add that. And what are we going to do - every time someone comes up with an idea we’re going to add a new opcode? How many opcodes are we going to add? I saw reports that Jihan was talking about hundreds of opcodes or something like that and it's like how big is this client going to become - how big is this node - is it going to have to handle every kind of weird opcode that that's out there? The software is just going to get unmanageable and DSV - that was my main consideration at the beginning was the, you know, if you can implement it in script you should do it, because that way it keeps the node software simple, it keeps it stable, and you know it's easier to test that it works properly and correctly. It's almost like adding (?) code from a microprocessor you know why would you do that if you can if you can implement it already in the script that is there.
Steve: 0:43:36.16,0:46:09.71
It’s actually an interesting inconsistency because when we were talking about adding the opcodes in May, the philosophy that seemed to drive the decisions that we were able to form a consensus around was to simplify and keep the opcodes as minimal as possible (ie where you could replicate a function by using a couple of primitive opcodes in combination, that was preferable to adding a new opcode that replaced) OP_SUBSTR is an interesting example - it's a combination of SPLIT, and SWAP and DROP opcodes to achieve it. So at really primitive script level we've got this philosophy of let's keep it minimal and at this sort of (?) philosophy it’s all let's just add a new opcode for every primitive function and Daniel's right - it's a question of opening the floodgates. Where does it end? If we're just going to go down this road, it almost opens up the argument why have a scripting language at all? Why not just add a hard code all of these functions in one at a time? You know, pay to public key hash is a well-known construct (?) and not bother executing a script at all but once we've done that we take away with all of the flexibility for people to innovate, so it's a philosophical difference, I think, but I think it's one where the position of keeping it simple does make sense. All of the primitives are there to do what people need to do. The things that people don't feel like they can't do are because of the limits that exist. If we had no opcode limit at all, if you could make a gigabyte transaction so a gigabyte script, then you can do any kind of crypto that you wanted even with 32-bit integer operations, Once you get rid of the 32-bit limit of course, a lot of those a lot of those scripts come up a lot smaller, so a Rabin signature script shrinks from 100MB to a couple hundred bytes.
Daniel: 0:46:06.77,0:47:36.65
I lost a good six months of my life diving into script, right. Once you start getting into the language and what it can do, it is really pretty impressive how much you can achieve within script. Bitcoin was designed, was released originally, with script. I mean it didn't have to be – it could just be instead of having a transaction with script you could have accounts and you could say trust, you know, so many BTC from this public key to this one - but that's not the way it was done. It was done using script, and script provides so many capabilities if you start exploring it properly. If you start really digging into what it can do, yeah, it's really amazing what you can do with script. I'm really looking forward to seeing some some very interesting applications from that. I mean it was Awemany his zero-conf script was really interesting, right. I mean it relies on DSV which is a problem (and some other things that I don't like about it), but him diving in and using script to solve this problem was really cool, it was really good to see that.
Steve: 0:47:32.78,0:48:16.44
I asked a question to a couple of people in our research team that have been working on the Rabin signature stuff this morning actually and I wasn't sure where they are up to with this, but they're actually working on a proof of concept (which I believe is pretty close to done) which is a Rabin signature script - it will use smaller signatures so that it can fit within the current limits, but it will be, you know, effectively the same algorithm (as DSV) so I can't give you an exact date on when that will happen, but it looks like we'll have a Rabin signature in the blockchain soon (a mini-Rabin signature).
Cory: 0:48:13.61,0:48:57.63
Based on your responses I think I kinda already know the answer to this question, but there's a lot of questions about ending experimentation on Bitcoin. I was gonna kind of turn that into – with the plan that Bitcoin SV is on do you guys see like a potential one final release, you know that there's gonna be no new opcodes ever released (like maybe five years down the road we just solidify the base protocol and move forward with that) or are you guys more on the idea of being open-ended with appropriate testing that we can introduce new opcodes under appropriate testing.
Steve: 0:48:55.80,0:49:47.43
I think you've got a factor in what I said before about the philosophical differences. I think new functionality can be introduced just fine. Having said that - yes there is a place for new opcodes but it's probably a limited place and in my opinion the cryptographic primitive functions for example CHECKSIG uses ECDSA with a specific elliptic curve, hash 256 uses SHA256 - at some point in the future those are going to no longer be as secure as we would like them to be and we'll replace them with different hash functions, verification functions, at some point, but I think that's a long way down the track.
Daniel: 0:49:42.47,0:50:30.3
I'd like to see more data too. I'd like to see evidence that these things are needed, and the way I could imagine that happening is that, you know, that with the full scripting language some solution is implemented and we discover that this is really useful, and over a period of, like, you know measured in years not days, we find a lot of transactions are using this feature, then maybe, you know, maybe we should look at introducing an opcode to optimize it, but optimizing before we even know if it's going to be useful, yeah, that's the wrong approach.
Steve: 0:50:28.19,0:51:45.29
I think that optimization is actually going to become an economic decision for the miners. From the miner’s point of view is if it'll make more sense for them to be able to optimize a particular process - does it reduce costs for them such that they can offer a better service to everyone else? Yeah, so ultimately these decisions are going to be miner’s main decisions, not developer decisions. Developers of course can offer their input - I wouldn't expect every miner to be an expert on script, but as we're already seeing miners are actually starting to employ their own developers. I’m not just talking about us - there are other miners in China that I know have got some really bright people on their staff that question and challenge all of the changes - study them and produce their own reports. We've been lucky with actually being able to talk to some of those people and have some really fascinating technical discussions with them.
submitted by The_BCH_Boys to btc [link] [comments]

Pictures and a quick recap of this weekends #L2Summit and Hackathon in Boston ⚡

I left with an addiction to these type of events and will be attending as many as possible in the future, great networking and very educational. I suggest anyone with a passion for the advancement of Bitcoin do the same.
Day 1 concluded with a extremely fun reception where projects for the following days Hackathon were slated. It was an honor to be able to thank so many contributors for their work in this space personally. Imgur
The Day 2 Hackathon netted some very promising presentations, it's an amazing to see how quickly solutions to complex challenges are progressing:
submitted by Capitalist_Dog to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

I'm giving a presentation on Cryptocurrencies and Monero...

I'm a phd student in applied mathematics, and next week I'll be giving an informal hour long talk to other math grad students on the mathematics behind cryptocurrencies. This will include things like ECDSA, cryptographic hash functions, and of course ring signatures and confidential transactions. It will be a very broad overview of many topics, as opposed to a deep dive on any one particular topic.
While the audience will undoubtedly be familiar with some of the fundamental mathematics discussed, things like blockchains, PoW mining, and network protocols will be new to them. Much of my time will be spent introducing bitcoin.
Anyways, I know cryptos are gaining more widespread, organic awareness just through word of mouth, but we don't always hear of specific instances where this sharing of knowledge takes place. As such, I just wanted to share with the community that I'll be making a small effort towards educating others about crypto/monero. and I encourage others to share with the community their experiences introducing others to monero.
A few other students/faculty have already taken an interest in cryptos as a result of our conversations, so hopefully after my talk I will be able to count a few more among them.
If there's anything in particular you think I should share with my audience, please comment and let me know
Not sure I'll be able to pull a video, but I can probably make my slides available. will update when i have them
submitted by Subgraph to Monero [link] [comments]

Will Quantum Computers BREAK Bitcoin Someday? (Explained For Beginners) Digital Signatures and Signing transactions explained The Dark Truth About Bitcoin (Bitcoin Mining Explained ... DE: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ECDSA  Teil 10 Kryptographie Crashkurs Best Bitcoin Mining Software That Work in 2020 🍓 - YouTube

Bitcoin Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for Bitcoin crypto-currency enthusiasts. It only takes a minute to sign up. ... Problems with deterministic ECDSA based on RFC6979 in Bitcoin. 2. Signature: encoding a message - transaction to a point of curve y^2=x^3+7 and Bitcoin Core ... Why were diamond mining plots 31-foot squares? Back to ECDSA and bitcoin. A protocol such as bitcoin selects a set of parameters for the elliptic curve and its finite field representation that is fixed for all users of the protocol. Security of Bitcoin My Whole Life: Tried to improve the security baseline… Crying Wolf! 6 51%, Elliptic Curve, OpenSSL... We consider if and when Bitcoin mining has been profitable compared to the energy cost of performing the mining, and conclude that specialist hardware is usually required to make Bitcoin mining ... Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm or ECDSA is a cryptographic algorithm used by Bitcoin to ensure that funds can only be spent by their rightful owners.. A few concepts related to ECDSA: private key: A secret number, known only to the person that generated it.A private key is essentially a randomly generated number.

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Will Quantum Computers BREAK Bitcoin Someday? (Explained For Beginners)

If you've ever wondered how Bitcoin really works and what the potential risks are, you're in the right place. Subscribe to TheHub Have y... ️ Download for free from Best Bitcoin Mining Software: Best BTC Miners in 2020 Welcome to Bitcoin Miner Machine. #Bitco... Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ECDSA Part 10 Cryptography Crashcourse - Duration: 35:32. Dr. Julian Hosp - Blockchain, Krypto, Bitcoin 5,773 views Mining Team - What can miners do to improve instant transactions? Presented 18 October 2018 at Satoshi's Vision Instant Transactions Workshop Gargnano (Lake Garda) Italy https ... Breaking ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) - rhme2 Secure Filesystem v1.92r1 ... How Bitcoin mining actually works - What is the "cryptographic puzzle"? - Duration: 14:13.