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[R] Trouble creating a Log Scale graph of Zimbabwean Dollars vs United States Dollars

First things first:
Dataset from kaggle
This image from Wikipedia is what I want to create
R code:
library(ggplot2) african_economicdata <- read.csv("african_crises.csv") Z_ED <- subset(african_economicdata, country == "Zimbabwe") Z_ED2001 <- subset(Z_ED, year > 2000) Z_ED2001$log10_exchange <- log10(Z_ED2001$exch_usd) ggplot(Z_ED2001, aes(Z_ED2001$year,Z_ED2001$log10_exchange)) + geom_line() +geom_point() + xlab("Year") + ylab("Exchange Rate in USD") + theme_minimal() 
Here is what the result looks like
A few things are throwing me off:
  1. This happens to be a cross section of two things i never really understood in my bachelors, forex and logarithms
  2. From the eye test the curve looks similar to the image from wikipedia, but the y-axis values don't make much sense to me (possibly due logarithms as previously stated).
  3. The dataset in Kaggle is light on details and I don't really know how to interpret the exchange rate values. Take 2001 for instance, does 5.510 x 10-25 mean that 1 ZWD is equal to 5.510 x 10-25 USD? The number is so small that it kind of melts my brain.
  4. I'm having trouble finding information about the ZWD during this time period, the trends in the wikipedia image for OMIR and the Parallel rate seems to have much fine grain data, looking at the fluctuations between 07-08. Does that mean that the data I'm working with would be the Official data?
submitted by CJEntusBlazeIt_420 to econometrics [link] [comments]

BEST BANK FOR CURRENT ACCOUNT IN INDIA – READ CAREFULLY

BEST BANK FOR CURRENT ACCOUNT IN INDIA – READ CAREFULLY

https://preview.redd.it/gfzi2wagvyd31.jpg?width=825&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=601921ef69e2cc7f10b0accdbf7983db11b518f7
People who are a unit in business principally they need a accounting. Most of the banks

provide differing types of current accounts. you'll be able to target your demand to

settle on best banks for accounting. There area unit 2 most typically used accounts –

bank account and accounting. Here, apprehend the most effective Bank For accounting In

India, the newest list for you.

Best Bank for accounting In India – options That Differentiate
Overdraft facility
More free transactions allowed
Moreover, Interest-free account
Minimum account balance starts from Rs.10,000 typically
Unlimited deposit and withdrawal facility
Allows direct payments victimization Doctor of Divinity, cheques and pay orders
Must Read: AADHAR LINK TO BANK ACCOUNT- straightforward STEP BY STEP GUIDE
Features And advantages Of accounting – Best Bank for accounting In India
Zero-interest rate account
The facility of draft and unsecured loans
Also, Unlimited withdrawals from the house branch
Can be operated by public and personal firms, people, proprietors, trusts, NGOs etc.
Multiple direct payment facilities like demand drafts, free cheque leaves, pay orders,

NEFT, RTGS etc.
Types Of accounting – Best accounting In India
Standard Current Account: It offers AN draft facility, cheque leaves, debit cards, SMS

banking, internet banking, etc. and contains a monthly average balance demand.
Single Column money Book: It permits transactions however doesn’t provide options like AN

draft facility. It records daily transactions underneath separate credit and debit

columns.
Packaged Current Account: It offers packaged options like travel insurance and medical

support.
Premium Current Account: It offers premium offers, services and advantages with tailor-

made options for its high-end customers.
Foreign Currency Accounts: it's for businesses or people that need vast foreign currency

transactions to be administrated often.
Must Read: tax REFUND standing – ELIGIBILITY, PROCEDURE, ONLINE
Which Type Of accounting Is appropriate For You?

Basic current accounts area unit dealing accounts with zero interest rates and high

minimum balance account needs. But, banks currently provide a spread of Current Accounts

designed to fulfill completely different client needs. Examples like low or naught

minimum balance account, draft facility, higher transactional capabilities and a

relationship manager. you've got to match this account options to pick out the most

effective banks for current accounts.

Here is that the List Of ten Best Bank For accounting In India
State Bank Of India
SBI provides unlimited daily transactions with their services. It additionally offers

draft facility that comes with a credit limit. Probably, SBI is that the best accounting

for tiny business in India.

Features And advantages
Low account maintenance charges
The convenience of straightforward money pickup facilities and money handling
Free monthly statement
Ease of SMS alerts
Nomination facility offered
Fastest Safest & Securest company net Banking
SBI internet banking is incredibly straightforward to use
HDFC Bank
HDFC Bank offers a bunch of options on its current accounts. The freed from charges

feature from it’s a home branch on money withdrawals, RTGS and NEFT payments and

collections.

Features And advantages
Avail on non-cash services
High dealing amounts
Easy net banking
ICICI Bank
ICICI bank targets its customer’s needs into thought. Also, it offers special privileges,

tailor-made offerings, free services and better free limits for daily transactions

Features And advantages
Unlimited transactions
Free RTGS and NEFT transactions
Free mobile alerts
Also, an infatuated relationship manager
user-friendly ICICI internet Banking
Axis Bank
Axis bank provides varied options to their customers. Also, there's AN choice of free

money deposit up to Rs. two lakhs during a month reception branch and in non-home branch

free money withdrawal up to Rs. 1 lakh.

Features And advantages
500 cheque leaves free per month
Free money deposit up to Rs. two lakhs during a month
Minimum balance demand is Rs. 10,000
easy Axis internet banking
Bank Of Baroda
There area unit differing types of accounting offered in Bank of Baroda. Further, they

provide money withdrawals in line with their customer’s needs.

Features And advantages
Based on the conception of PAY AS you employ
5 Non-ADC transactions area unit free per month
Unlimited issue of cheque books
Auto sweep / Reverse sweep feature offered
Kotak Mahindra bank
They focus to supply their best to their customers by their current accounts. Services,

like retreating funds and issuance cheques area unit one amongst the most effective from

this bank and it's one amongst the most effective banks for current accounts.

Features And advantages
Faster out-station cheque assortment
Better Forex rates and economical trade services
Cash management services
Also, free cheque payments and assortment
Free NEFT and RTGS through Kotak internet Banking
HSBC Bank
HSBC offers current accounts to its customers to fulfill their desires. Further, these

accounts go together with several added advantages and options.

Features And advantages
No monthly account fee
Exclusive access to offers and discounts
Dedicated relationship manager
Available draft service, subject to standing
Yes bank
It is a invasive public sector bank. affirmative bank provides many tailor-made

accounting banking product to people yet as businesses.

Features And advantages
Free demand drafts across India
Flexibility to extend the dealing limit
Also, free cheque payments and collections and free money deposits
Multi-city cheque books area unit provided
Union Bank
Union bank offers unlimited transactions to their customers. Its accounting comes with

varied advantages and options, therefore their customers don’t face any downside.

Features And advantages
Unlimited payments
Overdraft facility
Upcountry cheque assortment facility
Also, nomination facility
IndusInd Bank
The IndusInd bank has AN array of current accounts for giant company, businesses,

importers and exporters and for niche industries. Therefore, one amongst the foremost

vital advantages is that the shoppers will simply avail the draft facility.

Features And advantages
No limits on withdrawals
Provides AN draft facility
Also, Mobile banking and net banking facilities
Must Read: ten BEST BANKS for private LOAN IN India
Summary – Best accounting In India
Therefore we tend to here mentioned a number of the most effective banks for current

accounts in India. So, Current accounts have their own advantages. If you are doing daily

transactions with the bank and wish some further options than a accounting is healthier

than saving account. currently the most issue comes here after you got to opt for a bank

within which you're progressing to open AN account. Moreover, opt for the netbanking

facility. therefore opt for rigorously the most effective accounting during a bank that

suits your needs.
submitted by moneyinvestor3 to u/moneyinvestor3 [link] [comments]

Ripple (XRP) Analysis (quite thorough)

NOTE: I did not write this article below. I simply copy and pasted the article. Please click the following link to view the entire article. The article includes charts and images which were not transferred to the text below.
https://steemit.com/cryptocurrency/@lennartbedrage/the-ripple-xrp-effect-fundamental-analysis
The Ripple(XRP) Effect - Fundamental Analysis: lennartbedrage44 in cryptocurrency ripple.jpg
Lately, there’s been a tremendous amount of buzz around Ripple(XRP), but is it only because of the massive growth we’ve seen in the past few 30 days, or is there something more?
In this article, I’ll dive into a brief back ground of Ripple, objectively examine the arguments for and against it, explore its potential from a economic standpoint, then close with potential threats to your investment and a summary.
Meet Ripple(XRP)-
Released in 2012, Ripple aims to enable “secure, instant and nearly free global financial transactions of any size with no chargebacks” through their real-time gross settlement system (RTGS) and currency exchange and remittance network. Ripples distributed open-source internet protocol consensus ledger was created as basic technology for interbank and regulated financial institutions to integrate Ripple into their own systems. This differs from the Bitcoin full node and other crowdsourced altcoin consensus networks in several ways:
Ripples common shared ledger is a network of independent validating servers which compare their transaction records, rather than the full network of nodes coming to consensus prior to each transaction, enabling faster transaction speeds. Although their protocol is open source, it was not created as a plug & play solution, like bitcoins full-node software, nor does it rely on crowd-sourced support. Unlike Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, and other Alt-coins, Ripple is recognized as legal tender by several governments, which gives it instant liquidity via financial institution, as well as purchasing power over material goods. Because of this, it cannot be evaluated in the same ways as other coins, which are largely evaluated based on assumptions & speculation. In terms of value, it’s more like cash than a commodity. Because of this, it is evaluated in a much different way than Ethereum(ETH) and other alt-coins with intrinsic value, but is accepted much more rapidly because it’s easy for the mass-market to understand. Remember: without market acceptance, there is not value, regardless of how innovative something may be.
Just 4 short years after its release, on 01MAY17, Ripple announced that a consortium of 47 banks have successfully completed a pilot implementation of Ripple in Japan, making it the first country in the world to enable domestic and international real time money transfers via the cryptocurrency. This event lead the XRP value to sky-rocket from $0.051580 USD to an all-time high of $0.430085 in just 16 days… but why? Is it 100% speculation, or is there something else going on here?
“It’s not a real cryptocurrency!” Or is it? Well, those whom bring this argument to the table are probably referencing facts that I’ve mention during my introduction to Ripple: Its a centralized and regulated crypto-currency which does not need global consensus for transfers, and it is built specifically for (and potentially by) financial institutions. Though a lot of the Anarcho-Capitalists may want to steer clear of this one due to its highly regulated nature, regular capitalist may believe these core differences to be its greatest strengths:
Regulated - As I mentioned in my analysis on Ethereum(ETH), Bitcoin’s lack of regulation was likely he reason (or at least, that’s what they told us) that the proposed ETF failed to pass the SEC’s evaluation several months ago. If adhering to some sort of trusted regulatory standards, this could drive federal confidence, which in turn drive bank and lending institution faith…trickling all the way down to the consumers. This insures rapid mass market acceptance. Consensus - As mentioned before this is much different process than Bitcoin’s global consensus, which means that transaction times are nearly instant regardless of volume transferred. Additionally, all transfers adhere to distributive ledgers DLT standards, which is a requirement for many financial institutions to be insurable. Institutional Management - You’ve probably guessed this one already. Although the demand and speculative value is driven at some capacity by ‘the people’, this currency is about as close to the World bank and SWIFT as you can get. This is largely due to the amount Deliberate - It feels like a big bank, because it is. Ripple was built specifically for the financial markets, which is why they specifically targeted regulatory compliance. shutterstock_289877267_long_read_cover_large.jpg
Economic Value As mentioned in the last point, Its easy to see that Ripple offers tremendous value to financial-institutions and retail investors. These two groups make up 358 billion (numbers from 2013) non-cash cross-country annual transactions, and the FOREX market which sees more than $5.1 trillion $USD each day. Per a report released by Capgemini and The Royal Bank of Scotland, this is growing at an average rate of about 7.5% each year globally, though China and other Emerging Asian economies have been leading the charge at around 21%.
Seems like a lot, right? Well, for sake of uncovering the immediate value of XRP, we will zoom into the recent adopters of the distributed ledger technology: Japan, India, and the Central Europe, Middle East & Africa(CEMEA) regions.
Japan.jpg
Japan is the third largest economy in the world by nominal GDP ($6.11 trillion), fourth by purchasing power parity(PPP) and second largest developed economy. Currently, their GDP per capita is roughly $48,412 (vs $56,430 in US) and their major trade partners include the US, China, Hong Kong, Australia and South Korea.
Japan GDP.png
Aside from the speculation that they maybe soon pressure their trade partners (excluding the US and China) to adopt a system which allows for instant, near free transfers of funds, here’s where it gets interesting for the immediate future: Japan has already started accepting Ripple(XRP) as legal tender. If Ripple raises to just 25% of the overall transaction volume of P2P, P2B & B2B within Japan itself (represented in the chart by Other Services, Real Estate, Retail, Transport, Communications, Finance & Utilities) which is equal to about 20% of their overall economy, Ripple would be handling roughly $1.27 trillion USD in Japan – alone - every year. To put that in perspective, the current (at the time of writing) market capitalization of Bitcoin(BTC) is $30.7 billion USD (or >0.4%). Unlike Bitcoin, Ripple is legal tender which means that it can be exchanged for material goods and services, which means that it’s likely to have explosive acceptance in the local area.
India.jpg
India-based Axis Bank announced in April that they will soon begin leveraging distributed ledger tech for cross-border transactions and to make banking simple and convenient for their customers. About 15 days’ prior, another large financial institution, Yes Bank, also announced that they would be adopting Ripples ledger for the same reasons. If Ripple continues to grow in acceptance at this rate in India, we could see another economy, roughly 1/3 the size of Japan’s ($2.074 trillion USD) add to Ripples annual transaction value. Now, from an economic stand point, this is most interesting because agriculture represents more than 50% of India’s employment, which means that India would be the 2nd case of consumer trading Ripple for staple foods.
India GDP.png
It is likely that Ripple will not handle as large of a percentage of overall transaction volumes in India because only two major banks have adopted this currency and it is not the only Crypto. The latter is probably one of the most important variables, as this means that Ripple will be duking it out for market dominancy. As all of my projections are fairly conservative, I would estimate that Ripple will handle roughly 10% of India’s over all transaction volume in the next 365 days, equal to roughly $311.1 billion USD.
One last thing that I would like to mention is that India is literally the ‘I’ in BRIC and roughly 13% of the BRIC countries total output. If the BRIC comes to fruition, India may be able to convince it’s other close trade partners to jump on the XRP-Train as well.
Dubai.jpg
Abu Dhabi Bank, the National and largest bank of the UAE, has already begun offering cross-border transaction services with Ripples distributive ledger technology as well. As they deal extensively with their middle eastern neighbors, such as Saudi Arabia, and Qatar, the UAE is likely to set a trend for other CEMEA countries to follow.
UAE GDP.png
This might be a surprise to some people, but Dubai’s largest industry is the energy sector (shocker!) followed closely by Real Estate and their Finance industry (double shocker!). Although their GPD is much smaller than Japan and India’s (about $370 billion USD), I am anticipating Ripple to handle a larger percent of the UAE’s transaction volume (31.11%), especially in the finance, Real Estate, Retail and Logistics industries. This is due largely to the fact that their population is only roughly 9.157 million, but most Abu Dhabi nationals are very financially inclined (or at least heavy spenders).
Potential Threats As this threatens SWIFT (unless they are completely on board) and the US dollars’ supremacy in the economic & financial markets, I would not be surprised to see a false flag attack, in which the NSA attacks Ripple and blames it on North Korea or China. Frankly, this would be a cake walk compared to Stuxnet or WannaCry and they could probably hand the task to an MIT intern. Where semi-centralization is Ripples strength in terms of transaction speed and regulation, it is also the biggest security flaw and may open it’s user to some heart ache, hair loss and heavy drinking over the next several years.
Possibility So, what is possible in terms of value over the next few years? Well, if we consider the following scenario:
XRP accounts for roughly 20% of Japan, India full GDP, but 31.1% UAE’s GDP ($7.152 Trillion USD) total exchange volume in the next 2 years Max XRP Supply stays at 100 billion No other countries adopt XRP (not likely) No hacks or other catastrophic events remove confidence Exclude speculation, demand, rallies, and GDP growth projections for each country Then we’re looking at each Ripple(XRP) market capitalization over ~$1.75 Trillion USD, making each coin $17.52 in real value. This means that if you were to invest today at $0.362794, your ROI would be about 4,989%. That said, I think that it’s likely it will go over $30 in the next 2 years, due to speculators flooding the markets and other countries signing up. Again, these are conservative numbers are based on total transaction value in USD equivalent.
For those whom subscribe, I will update as new variables are available to my appraisal
Bottom Line Although it was most definitely created by an insider of the banking industry and does not ‘feel like a crypto’, I personally feel that due to its rapid market acceptance, liquidity and position as legal tender in 3 large economies, Ripple(XRP) is both primed for explosive growth in the near future and likely to be one of the safest value based Crypto-investments we can make today.
Another thing, China is the anchor of the West Pacific, so we should all watch their evaluation of Ripple, very closely. If they were to jump on the XRP-Train, you are likely to see Australia, South Korea, Indonesia and Singapore do the same.
If you enjoyed this article, be sure to share & subscribe, as I have kept my proprietary models and will update as major events and additional countries begin to adopt this currency. If you feel that I have missed something or am just flat out wrong, please be sure to let me know in the comments below!
Planned articles for the next 14 days:
ICO advice from a Venture Capitalist (Follower Request) Paper Wallets (Follower Request) VIVA Analysis (Follower Request) Segregated Witness(Segwit) : Friend or Foe? A Kraken ate my gains... Fundamental Analysis: Stellar Lumens(XLM) Dual-Citizenship and Banking in Panama Rich vs. Wealthy All analysis, numbers and projections are my own. Core information was gathered from reliable sources, such as the World Bank, IMF, CIA world fact book, eia.gov and more.
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Know Why Forex Cards Are Safer Than Foreign Money

Know Why Forex Cards Are Safer Than Foreign Money
How to carry funds while travelling abroad is a common question asked by travellers! You can read articles comparing Forex card, Cash, Traveller’s Cheque, Credit and Debit card, that provide enough understanding on how currency works on an international trip. Some explain in detail with respect to the cost and some with reference to convenience. But again, however you look at it, a Forex Card is the most convenient and safest way to carry money.
Planning an international trip involves finding the best airline tickets, hotel bookings and places to visit and see. So, a little heed to the benefits of prepaid forex card or multi-currency card may offer much food for thought.
Here are a few reasons why a Forex Card is the most inexpensive way to carry money while travelling abroad.

https://preview.redd.it/ewdyjesxx9m21.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=e7147f1c0a036acae811044267bfcfc7061a35f5
  1. Forex Cards offer better exchange rates while loading currencies on your account than buying foreign currency as cash. Providing Forex Cards is the most economical option for banks.
  2. By default, Forex Cards are loaded with foreign currency at locked-in exchange rates. Thus making it a safe option during fluctuation of currency value in the forex market. If you add 2000 USD in your Forex Card, the value in it will still remain 2000 USD regardless of any inconsistency in INR-USD currency exchange rate.
  3. Forex cards are enabled with a chip and pin technology to safeguard the money in them. If in case a Forex Card is stolen or lost, it can be blocked at once and the balance in it will be frozen. And once the original is blocked, the secondary Forex Card can be activated and the frozen funds will be transferred to it.
  4. Forex Cards can be used to carry multiple foreign currencies at the same time, anywhere across the globe. For example, banks such as Axis, issue Forex Cards that allow you to load up to 16 mainstream currencies such.
If you want know more Reasons Why Forex Cards are Safer than Cash, visit source blog.
Source: https://yourexpertguide.wordpress.com/2019/03/14/5-reasons-why-forex-cards-are-safer-than-cash/
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Enjoy exciting cashback on Axis Bank Multi-Currency Forex Card Commodity Trading for Beginners  AxisDirect Free Non Repainting Cloud Signal Indicator #IGotPlans - YouTube Foreign currency transactions AS-11 (FEF A/c) Lecture -3 by Rakesh Sir

Existing Axis Bank customers as well as those having no relationship with the bank can purchase the cards from any of the bank branches located across India by submitting the required documents. To have a better understanding about the types of Forex Cards offered by the bank let’s have a look at the card, their features and benefits. Forex Services by Axis Bank. We offer a variety of Foreign Exchange Services in India like Currency and Travel cards, Currency Cash, Remittance and more! ... Axis Bank offers seamless , convenient money transfers from your country to any Axis Bank Account at competitive exchange rates. ... Cover arranged by Axis Bank for its customers under ... You can send money abroad or request for Forex card or foreign currency cash through Axis Forex Online. Make payment online Post beneficiary registration, you can now transfer money online in over 100 + currencies from any bank account in India to any bank around the world. The rates displayed above for money transfers are applicable for the remittances being received/sent through SWIFT. Please refer to the websites of Remit Money and Axis Forex Online for the exchange rates applicable for transactions undertaken on those websites. Competitive rates on loading/reloading in AED (Applicable only for new Forex Cards) Exclusive offers in Dubai (Applicable for all Axis Bank VISA Forex Card holders) Wild Wadi Waterpark Visa Offer-AED 99 per person on Sundays only. You can use Wild Wadi online tickets within 14 days.

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